Respiratory Depression Explained
If your breathing is slow and ineffective, you’re at risk of dangerous health complications that can lead to death. However, with effective treatment, respiratory depression can be tackled and you can avert the dangers associated with the breathing disorder. Treatment normally involves holistic techniques targeted at both the root causes of the condition, and its direct symptoms.
What is Respiratory Depression?
Respiratory depression is a serious health condition where the depth and rate of breathing is abnormally low. The body loses the ability to properly dispel carbon dioxide from the lungs, leading to inadequate use of oxygen. The result of this condition is high carbon dioxide levels and low levels of oxygen in the blood.
Other names for Respiratory Depression
Another term for respiratory depression is ‘hypoventilation’; ‘hypo’ meaning ‘below’, which defines it as a low rate of ventilation where the gas exchange in the lungs are below normal levels. Hypoventilation should not be confused with hyperventilation, which is the state of breathing deeper or faster than normal.
Causes of Respiratory Depression
Specific health complications and certain medications, especially sedatives, are known to increase a person’s chances of developing respiratory depression, or directly causing the breathing disorder. Common causes of hypoventilation are:
- Overdose of opioids or opiates like tramadol, morphine, fentanyl, or heroine
- Anaesthetic related or opioid-induced respiratory depression after surgery
- Central sleep apnoea
- Severe obesity
- Chronic lung disease
- Chest wall disease
- Neuromuscular disease
- Brain injury
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Symptoms of Respiratory Depression
The following symptoms point to the presence of hypoventilation:
- Reduced heart rate
Left untreated, it can lead to:
- Respiratory arrest
- Cardiac arrest
- Brain damage
Respiratory Depression Triggers
Certain conditions and or medications can act as catalysts to repressed breathing. They include:
- Opioid overdose
- Ethanol poisoning or overdose
- Sedative poisoning or overdose
- Barbiturates poisoning or overdose
- Benzodiazepine poisoning or overdose
- Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS)
- Central sleep apnoea
- Severely elevated blood ammonia
- Brain tumours
Complications of Respiratory Depression
Life-threatening complications can occur if respiratory depression isn’t treated, which can possibly lead to death. Right-sided heart failure (pulmonary hypertension) is a possible complication that can be caused by continued hypoventilation episodes. Respiratory depression induced by drug poisoning or overdose can result in respiratory arrest where breathing stops completely, which can be fatal.
How is Respiratory Depression Diagnosed?
Some of the tests your doctor may order to diagnose your condition include:
- Pulse oximetry test, which measures the level of oxygen in your bloodstream with the use of a monitor on your finger
- Urine and serum drug screens
- Blood alcohol concentration tests
- Screens for various toxins
- Serum ammonia level test
- Blood gas test
- Haemoglobin and haematocrit blood test
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or Computed tomography (CT) scans to check for tumours or stroke in the brain
- Electroencephalogram (EEG) test
- Sleep study
Effects and Dangers of Respiratory Depression
The dangers of respiratory depression, particularly when left untreated, can be fatal as they include respiratory arrest (inability to breathe) and falling into a coma.
Respiratory Depression as an Addiction Withdrawal and Detox Symptom
People can get dependent or addicted to drugs used in treating hyperventilation syndrome (increased rate of breathing) and may suffer repressed breathing when they suddenly stop taking these drugs. This withdrawal symptom may also be present during detox but with the right treatment approach, it can be handled appropriately.
Treatment of Respiratory Depression
Although hypoventilation can be serious, it can also be treated. Experts adopt a variety of treatment options depending on the individual state of each patient, and the severity of the condition.
How Is Respiratory Depression Treated?
Treatment procedures include diagnosing and tackling the root causes and direct symptoms of the condition. In cases where an addiction to opioids and other central nervous system depressants is present, therapies will be carried out to ensure recovery is attained and a repeat of the crisis is averted.
Treatment options for Respiratory Depression
The following are treatment options for hypoventilation:
- Oxygen therapy
- Fluid therapy
- Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)
- Mechanical ventilation
Medication used in Treatment
If respiratory depression is caused by an overdose of drugs like opioids, detoxification is carried out where medications like suboxone, naloxone, and methadone are used, since they reverse the effects of opioids.
The Role of counselling in Treatment and Rehab
counselling is an invaluable tool in cases where addiction to depressants and sedatives are a direct or contributory cause of respiratory depression. Through counselling, you can be taught life changes that will facilitate recovery from addiction and dependence, and prevent a relapse.
Preventing a Relapse
- Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption
- Avoiding or taking extra precautionary measures when using sedative medications
- Giving up or taking extra precautions when using narcotic medications
- Supervising children placed on prescription medications
Choosing a Treatment centre
There are treatment clinics that can help you properly tackle hypoventilation in the UK through different options, including detox and rehab in cases of drug overdose, and where an addiction is present. Choosing this kind of treatment centre will boost your chances of successful recovery.
Types of Respiratory Depression Treatment
You can choose to get treatment as a resident patient in an inpatient facility, or on an outpatient basis where you’ll be treated as a visiting patient. Ultimately, your doctor will make a recommendation depending on your situation.
Questions to Ask Treatment centres
It’s important that you undergo treatment in an enabling environment that suits your needs. So, ensure to ask your treatment centre questions about their policy in regards to confidentiality, their available methods of payment, specific facilities in the centre, as well as your treatment duration.
Facts about Respiratory Depression
- Addiction to drugs like opioids, benzodiazepines, and substances like alcohol will increase your risk of respiratory depression.
- Treatment options for the condition will be influenced by the severity of the case as well as other factors.
- Symptoms include shallow breathing, and in dire cases, coma, respiratory failure, or death.
Continuing Life after Treatment
You could still be prone to this breathing disorder if you go back to activities that caused it in the first place, even after successful treatment. It’s important, as a result, that you take all the medical advice your doctors have laid out in order to prevent another potentially life-threatening episode in the future.
Call our admissions line 24 hours a day to get help.
Get help today
Respiratory depression is a dangerous health condition. Don’t take symptoms for granted, as the next episode could be fatal. By getting help, you can avert a serious complication that may claim your life.
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