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24 hours rehab
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24 hours rehab

Call Now for Immediate Confidential Help and Advice 02038 115 619

24 hours rehab
Immediate Access for help and advice

Addiction and Dependence Explained

The term ‘dependence’ was introduced in 1964 by a World Health Organization Expert Committee to replace the words ‘addiction’ and ‘habituation’ (1). In the scientific community, dependence syndrome is defined as a combination of behavioural, physiological and cognitive phenomena whereby the user prioritizes substance abuse over other, productive activities.

The major feature of the dependence syndrome is the compelling desire to consume psychoactive drugs which may be illicit or medically prescribed.

What Is Dependence?

Dependence is the physical condition in which a body becomes accustomed to the existence of a drug. When the user quits taking the drug, they are likely to experience withdrawal symptoms. This condition occurs as a result of continued ingestion of a substance that causes changes in the body.

Drug dependence can be treated, giving the body time to adjust back to normal.

In some cases, the doctor reduces the dose of a substance gradually to minimise the withdrawal effects for patients whose dependence arose from consuming prescribed drugs such as opioid painkillers; sometimes replacement medications may be used to ease the withdrawal period.

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The Difference between Dependence and Addiction

The terms dependence and addiction are sometimes used interchangeably. However, there is a distinction between their meanings.

Dependence refers to a condition where a person becomes physically or psychologically dependent on a drug. This condition is characterised by tolerance and withdrawal symptoms. In many cases, dependence is accompanied by addiction, although it may be possible to have a physical dependence without being addicted. (2)

In contrast, addiction is a disease caused by an adjustment in the performance that occurs as a result of the brain’s biochemical changes due to repeated drug use. At this point, drug abuse becomes our major priority, regardless of its dangerous effects. Addiction also involves mental as well as physical reliance on a drug.

Physical and Psychological Dependence

Physical dependence occurs when our body becomes dependent on a drug due to regular consumption, abuse or systematic use. The human body cells will find it difficult or even unbearable to function without the drug because they have become accustomed to it. This results in a number of withdrawal symptoms that often push the user to continue using the drug to prevent the pain.
In psychological dependence, the user becomes mentally dependent on the drug. The use of a drug is a conditioned reaction to an event or feeling known as a trigger. Psychologically addicted users have an emotional or mental attachment to a drug or to its effects and strongly feel the urge to seek out and use their drug of choice.
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Which Drugs Cause Dependency?

Drugs that are likely to cause addiction include:

Prescription drugs

  • Opioids: Examples include morphine, OxyContin, Percodan, codeine, Percocet and Vicodin.
  • Central Nervous System Depressants: These include barbiturates and benzodiazepines like Xanax, Librium and Valium.
  • Stimulants: Often-used stimulants include Adderall, Concerta, Dexedrine and Ritalin.

Other (illegal) drugs

  • Marijuana, hashish and other cannabis-containing substances
  • Club drugs: Examples include acid (GHB) and ecstasy or molly (MDMA).
  • Hallucinogens: These include lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and phencyclidine (PCP).
  • Inhalants: These include glue, paint thinners, correction fluid, cleaning fluids and household aerosol products.
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